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Still today, most will torture if ordered: study

Dec. 19, 2008
Reters

Some things nev­er chnge. Sci­en­tists say they have rep­li­cat­ed an ex­pe­ri­ment in which peo­ple would obe­di­ently give pain­ful shocks to oth­ers if promp­ted to do so by au­thor­ity fig­ures.

Sev­en­ty per­cent of vol­un­teers con­tin­ued to ad­min­is­ter elec­tri­cal shcks—or at least they be­lieved they were do­ing so—e­ven af­ter an ac­tor claimed they were pain­ful, Jer­ry Burg­er of San­ta Clara Uni­ver­s­ity in Cal­i­for­nia found.

“What we found is val­ida­t­ion of the same ar­gu­ment—if you put peo­ple in­to cer­tin situa­t­ions, they will act in sur­pris­ing, and may­be of­ten even dis­turb­ing, ways,” Burg­er said in a tel­e­phone in­ter­view. “This re­search is still rel­e­van­t.”

Burg­er was repli­cat­ing an ex­pe­ri­ment pub­lished in 1961 by Yle Uni­ver­s­ity pro­fes­sor Stan­ley Mil­gram, in which vol­un­teers were asked to de­liv­er elec­tric “shocks” to oth­er peo­ple if they an­swered cer­tain ques­tions in­cor­rect­ly.

Mil­gram found that, af­ter hear­ing an ac­tor cry out in pain at 150 volts, 82.5 per­cent of par­ti­ci­pnts con­tin­ued ad­min­is­tering shocks, most to the max­i­mum 450 volts. The ex­pe­ri­ment sur­prised psy­chol­o­gists and no one has tried to rep­li­cate it be­cause of the dis­tress suf­fered by ma­ny of the vol­un­teers who be­lieved they were shock­ing anoth­er per­son.

“When you hear the man scream and say, ‘let me out, I can’t stand it,’ that is the pint when the real stress that peo­ple crit­i­cized Mil­gram for kicked in,” Burg­er said.

“It was a very, very, very stress­ful ex­perience for ma­ny of the par­ti­ci­pants. That is the ra­son no one can eth­ic­ally rep­li­cate the ex­pe­ri­ment to­day.”

Burg­er mod­i­fied the ex­pe­ri­ment, by stop­ping at the 150 volt point for the 29 men and 41 wom­en in his ex­pe­ri­ment. He mas­ured how ma­ny of his vol­un­teers be­gan to de­liv­er anoth­er shock when prompted by the ex­pe­ri­men­t’s lead­er—but in­stead of let­ting them do so, stopped them.

In Mil­gram’s orig­i­nal ex­pe­ri­ment, 150 volts seemed to be the trn­ing point.

In Burg­er’s mod­i­fied ex­pe­ri­ment, 70 per­cent of the vol­un­teers were will­ig to give shocks great­er than 150 volts.

At one point, re­search­ers brought in a vol­un­teer who knew what was go­ing on and re­fsed to ad­min­is­ter shocks be­yond 150 volts. De­spite the ex­am­ple, 63 per­cent of the par­ti­ci­pants con­tin­ued ad­min­is­tering shocks past 150 volts.

“That was sur­pris­ing and dis­ap­pont­ing,” Burg­er said.

Burg­er found no dif­fer­ences among his vol­un­teers, aged 20 to 81, and care­fully screned them to be av­er­age rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the U.S. pub­lic.

Burg­er said the ex­pe­ri­ment, pub­lished in the journal Amer­i­can Psy­chol­o­gist, can only prtly ex­plain the widely re­ported pris­on­er abuse at the U.S.-run Abu Ghraib pris­on in Iraq or events dur­ing World War Two.

“Although one must be cau­tious when mak­ing the lap from lab­o­r­a­to­ry stud­ies to com­plex so­cial be­hav­iors such as gen­o­cide, un­der­stand­ing the so­cial psy­cho­log­i­cal fac­tors that con­trib­ute to peo­ple act­ing in un­ex­pected and un­set­tling ways is im­por­tan­t,” he wrote.

“It is not that there is some­thing wrong with the peo­ple,” Burg­er said. “The idea has been sme­how there was this char­ac­ter­is­tic that peo­ple had back in the early 1960s that they were some­how more prone to obe­di­ence.”


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Some things never change. Scientists say they have replicated an experiment in which people obediently delivered painful shocks to others if prompted to do so by authority figures.